IEW Institut für Erziehungswissenschaft Institut News und Veranstaltungen Veranstaltungen
Veranstaltungsreihe: The Phenomenological Study of Motivation
04 Jul
04. Jul. 2022 07. Jul. 2022

Veranstaltungsreihe: The Phenomenological Study of Motivation

Tragen Sie sich einfach bei StudIP in die Veranstaltung "The Phenomenological Study of Motivation" ein.



Purpose and Description

Motivation is a complex construct that relates to individual factors like how much energy one devotes to assigned activities, the way one person thinks and feels about the activity and how long he or she remains involved in it. In addition, contextual factors like spending time with other learners or a good learning climate can play a crucial role in individuals’ motivation (for an overview on three main motivational perspectives regarding contextual factors within the domain of psychology see Urdan & Schoenfelder, 2006).

Investigating motivation using qualitative methods

The origins of motivation research were strongly tied to quantitative research methods since the founders of motivation research — Wallace Lambert, Robert Gardner, and their students and associates — were social psychologists trained within this research paradigm (for an overview see Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2013). Within quantitative research, surveys and experiments using questionnaires have been the dominant study methods (using cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs). In general, quantitative research is used to quantify the problem by generating numerical data or data that can be transformed into usable statistics. Regarding learning motivation, survey studies can analyze learners’ motivation in diverse geographical, sociocultural, and institutional contexts and compare the results of various subpopulations of learners. Experimental studies test if different motivational strategies increase student motivation, for example. Longitudinal studies can identify motivational changes at the individual and group level.

Qualitative research is often regarded as exploratory and is used to uncover trends in thoughts and opinions. Rich qualitative data describing the views and experiences of individuals regarding motivation can expand our understanding and provide empirical depth to the analysis of the phenomenon motivation. Phenomenology is a qualitative research method that focuses on the study of individuals’ lived experiences within the world (Neubauer et al., 2019; Teherani et al., 2015); if used in motivation study, it could investigate the nature of the experience, explore the phenomenon by examining it from the perspective of those who have experienced it, and outline the meaning of experience, both in terms of what was experienced and how it was experienced (Teherani et al., 2015).

University students’ motivation during the pandemic worldwide: examining rarely heard voices using the phenomenological approach

In general, demographic variables must be considered while analyzing motivation (for evidence from Sri Lanka see de Silva et al., 2018). However, most theories of motivation were developed in western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) nations with specific demographic and cultural characteristics.

Studies on university students' motivation in WEIRD nations during remote learning and COVID-19 found that motivation decreased (for mixed methods research from USA see Aguilera-Hermida, 2020; for survey research from Canada see Daniels et al., 2021; for survey research from Netherlands see Meeter et al., 2020). The impact of COVID-19 on children and youth in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is more significant because of their living situations, socio-spatial contexts, and the pandemic's effect on essential social support networks such as caregivers, families, peers, and communities (Bong et al., 2020; Rahiem et al., 2021). Learning motivation also decreased among youth in LMICs in the pandemic, as shown by a phenomenological qualitative study in Bangladesh (Dutta & Smita, 2020), a mixed method study in India (Dhingra et al., 2021), and also a mixed method study in Vietnam (Van & Thi, 2021). However, not all students lost motivation due to online learning with COVID-19 (Lee et al., 2020; Rafique et al., 2021). In fact, my research in Indonesia in 2021 found that despite limitations and other obstacles, students were determined to continue their educations during these difficult times (Rahiem, 2021). This qualitative phenomenology study included eighty students from an Indonesian public university in Jakarta. Students created learning log diaries and reflective essays and participated in an online focus group discussion for data collection. This research method provides a platform for rarely or never heard voices. The findings are authentic, culturally bound, and address motivation in an understudied context.

In the workshop we will deal with the qualitative approach of phenomenology analyzing data about students’ motivation during the pandemic in Indonesia. A video about how students in Indonesia learned during a pandemic will be screened to provide an overview of the preceding study's context and to provide context for our exercise on the significance of social and cultural factors in the study of motivation. In addition, excerpts of the previous study (learning log diaries and reflective essays) will be shared, data interpretation will be practiced, and a cross-cultural dialogue is anticipated. You will also work on your own project using data collected by yourself.





4.7.22 (online)

12-15 Uhr

Phenomenology for the study of motivation: how can we learn about motivation from the experiences of others?


12-15 Uhr

Using narratives as data sources to amplify the voices of individuals who are rarely or never heard


12-15 Uhr

When access is limited, and movement is restricted during the COVID-19 pandemic: using diaries and essays as data collecting tools to research the phenomena of students' learning motivation


12-15 Uhr

The significance of culture and context, and the insights and experiences of researchers in defining what was experienced and how it was experienced during the pandemic


Aguilera-Hermida, A. P. (2020). College students’ use and acceptance of emergency online learning due to COVID-19. International Journal of Educational Research Open1

, 100011.

Bong, C.-L., Brasher, C., Chikumba, E., McDougall, R., Mellin-Olsen, J., & Enright, A. (2020). The COVID-19 Pandemic: Effects on Low- and Middle-Income Countries. 

Anesthesia and Analgesia131

(1), 86–92.

Daniels, L. M., Goegan, L. D., & Parker, P. C. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 triggered changes to instruction and assessment on university students’ self-reported motivation, engagement and perceptions. 

Social Psychology of Education24

(1), 299–318.

de Silva, A. D. A., Khatibi, A., & Ferdous Azam, S. M. (2018). Do the Demographic Differences Manifest in Motivation to Learn Science and Impact on Science Performance? Evidence from Sri Lanka. 

International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education16

(1), 47–67.

Dhingra, S., Pasricha, N., Sthapak, E., & Bhatnagar, R. (2021). Assessing the Role of Internal Motivation and Extrinsic Factors on Online Undergraduate Medical Teaching in a Resource-Poor Setting During Covid-19 Pandemic in North India: An Observational Study. 

Advances in Medical Education and Practice12

, 817–823.

Dörnyei, Z., & Ushioda, E. (2013). 

Teaching and researching: Motivation. Routledge.

Dutta, S., & Smita, M. K. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on tertiary education in Bangladesh: students’ perspectives. Open Journal of Social Sciences8(09), 53.

Lee, J. X., Ahmad Azman, A. H., Ng, J. Y., & Ismail, N. A. S. (2020). Reflection of connectivism in medical education and learning motivation during COVID-19. MedRxiv

, 2020.07.07.20147918.

Meeter, M., Bele, T., den Hartogh, C., Bakker, T., de Vries, R. E., & Plak, S. (2020). 

College students’ motivation and study results after COVID-19 stay-at-home orders.

Neubauer, B. E., Witkop, C. T., & Varpio, L. (2019). How phenomenology can help us learn from the experiences of others. Perspectives on Medical Education8

(2), 90–97.

Rafique, G. M., Mahmood, K., Warraich, N. F., & Rehman, S. U. (2021). Readiness for Online Learning during COVID-19 pandemic: A survey of Pakistani LIS students. 

The Journal of Academic Librarianship47

(3), 102346.

Rahiem, M. D. H. (2021). Remaining Motivated despite the Limitations: University Students’ Learning Propensity during the COVID-19 Pandemic. 

Children and Youth Services Review

, 105802.

Rahiem, M. D. H., Krauss, S. E., & Ersing, R. (2021). Perceived Consequences of Extended Social Isolation on Mental Well-Being: Narratives from Indonesian University Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic. In 

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 

(Vol. 18, Issue 19).

Urdan, T., & Schoenfelder, E. (2006). Classroom effects on student motivation: Goal structures, social relationships, and competence beliefs. 

Journal of School Psychology44

(5), 331–349.

Van, D. T. H., & Thi, H. H. Q. (2021). Student Barriers to Prospects of Online Learning in Vietnam in The Context of Covid-19 Pandemic. 

Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education22(3), 110–123.


Gastwissenschaftlerin am Institut für Erziehungswissenschaft:

Maila Rahiem, PhD

Associate Professor of Education
Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta, Indonesia

Adjunct Associate Professor of Education
Central Queensland University, Australia


Prof. Dr. Lysann Zander

Arbeitsbereich Empirische Bildungsforschung
Institut für Erziehungswissenschaft


04. Jul. 2022 07. Jul. 2022


Prof. Dr. Lysann Zander


Geb.: 1211
Raum: -114
Schloßwender Str. 1
30159 Hannover
Standort anzeigen